Papers by James Lovelock

Transfer of respiratory infection

This was my first work for the MRC starting when I was 21. It continued until 1951. The significant papers of this period are marked “†” and include the development of a series of effective aerial bactericides from a theory of their action.

  • Bourdillon, R.B., Lidwell, O.M. and Lovelock, J.E. 1942. Sneezing and disinfection by hypochlorites. British Medical Journal, 42.
  • Lovelock, J.E., Lidwell, O.M. and Raymond, W.F. 1944. Aerial disinfection. Nature, 153, 20.
  • Lovelock, J.E., Lidwell, O.M. and Raymond, W.F. 1944. Vaporization of lactic acid as an aerial bactericide. Nature, 153, 743.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1945. Aerial bactericides. Nature, 156, 782.

The following fourteen papers were published in Studies in Air Hygiene, Medical Research Council Special Report Series No. 262, H.M.S.O., London:

  • Bourdillon, R.B., Lidwell, O.M. and Lovelock, J.E. 1948. Technique of bacterial killing tests.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1948. The quantitative estimation of chemical bactericides in very low aerial concentration.
  • Lidwell, O.M. and Lovelock, J.E. 1948. The use of hypochlorities for air disinfection.
  • Lidwell, O.M., Lovelock, J.E. and Raymond, W.F. 1948. Propylene glycol as an air disinfectant.
  • Lidwell, O.M., Lovelock, J.E. and Raymond, W.F. 1948. Lactic acid as an air disinfectant.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1948. Aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids as air disinfectants.
  • Lidwell, O.M. and Lovelock, J.E. 1948. Behaviour of disinfectant vapours after dispersal in air.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1948. Aerial disinfection by substances vaporized at room temperature.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1948. Killing on the culture plates during tests of air disinfectants.
  • Lidwell, O.M. and Lovelock, J.E. 1948. Simple vaporizers for aerial disinfectants.
  • Lidwell, O.M. and Lovelock, J.E. 1948. Certain general features in air disinfection by chemicals.
  • Lovelock, J.E. and Raymond, W.F. 1948. Airborne bacteria in a mess room, and disinfection by lactic acid, hydroxy methylbutyric acid and ultraviolet light.
  • Bourdillon, R.B., Lidwell, O.M., Lovelock, J.E. and Raymond, W.F. 1948. Airborne bacteria found in factories and other places: suggested limits of bacterial contamination.
  • Lidwell, O.M. and Lovelock, J.E. 1948. Disinfection by hypochlorous acid in air raid shelters.
  • Bourdillon, R.B., Lidwell, O.M. and Lovelock, J.E. 1948. The efficiency of various types of masks in trapping bacteria emitted from the mouth.
  • Dumbell, K.R., Lovelock, J.E. and Lowbury, E.J. 1948. Handkerchiefs in the transfer of respiratory infection, l. Lancet, 255, 183.
  • † Dumbell, K.R. and Lovelock, J.E. 1949. Handkerchiefs in the transfer of respiratory infection, 2. Lancet, 777.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1949. The properties and use of aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids in aerial disinfection. Thesis.
  • Andrewes, C.H., Lovelock, J.E. and Sommerville, T. 1951. An experiment on the transmission of colds. Lancet, 260, 25.
  • Lovelock, J.E., Porterfield, J.S., Roden, A.T., Sommerville, T. and Andrewes, C.H. 1952. Further studies on the natural transmission of the common cold. Lancet, 657.

Biochemistry and biophysics

Here are a few papers on subjects ranging from blood coagulation to lipid biochemistry. A few of them are marked by a “† ” to indicate that I thought them to be notable.

  • † Lovelock, J.E. and Porterfield, J.S. 1951. Blood coagulation: its prolongation in vessels with negatively charged surfaces. Nature, 167, 39.
  • Lovelock, J.E. and Burch, B.M. 1951. Blood clotting: the inhibition by anions and the function of calcium. Biochem. J. 48, xxxiv.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. and Porterfield, B.M. 1951. Blood clotting: the function of electrolytes and calcium. Biochem. J., 50, 415.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1951. Fluorescence Quenching by Colloid Anions and Cations. J. of Chem. Soc. 26, 115-20.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. and Rees, R.J.W. 1955. Possible site and mode of action of certain lipotropic macromolecules in tuberculosis. Nature, 175, 161.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1955. The physical instability of human red blood cells. Biochem. J., 60, 692.
  • † James, A.T. and Lovelock, J.E. 1956. A preliminary investigation of the fatty acid composition of blood lipids from rabbit, ox, rat and normal and atherosclerotic humans. III Rd International Conference on Biochemical Problems of Lipids 26-28 July 1956.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1956. The physical instability of human red blood cells and its possible importance in their senescence. CIBA Foundation Colloquia on Ageing, 2, 215-232.
  • James, A.T., Lovelock, J.E., Webb, J. and Trotter, W.R. 1957. The fatty acids of the blood in coronary-artery disease. Lancet, 705.
  • James, A.T., Lovelock, J.E. and Webb, J.P.W. 1957. The biosynthesis of fatty acids by the human red blood cell. Chem. Aspects II, July, 72.
  • James, A.T. and Lovelock, J.E. 1958. Essential fatty acids and human disease. British Medical Bulletin, 14, 262.
  • Hart, D’Arcy P. and Lovelock, J.E. 1958. Protection of living cells against acid by certain non-ionic and amphoteric soaps. Nature, 182, 304-305.
  • Lovelock, J.E. and Nash, T. 1958. A colour reaction for non-ionic and amphoteric soaps. Nature, 181, 1263-1264.
  • James, A.J., Lovelock, J.E. and Webb, J. 1959. The lipids of the whole blood. l. Lipid biosynthesis in human blood in vitro. Biochem. J., 73, 106.
  • Rowe, C.E., Allison, A.C. and Lovelock, J.E. 1960. Synthesis of lipids by different human blood cell types. Biochem. Biophys. Acta., 41, 310.
  • Lovelock, J.E., James, A.T. and Rowe, C.E. 1960. The lipids of whole blood. 2. The exchange of lipids between the cellular constituents and the lipoproteins of human blood. Biochem. J., 74, 137.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1961. Affinity of organic compounds for free electrons with thermal energy: its possible significance in biology. Nature, 189, No. 4766, 729-732.
  • † Lovelock, J.E., Zlatkis, A. and Becker, R.S. 1962. Affinity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for electrons with thermal energies: its possible significance in carcinogenesis. Nature, 193, No. 4815, 540-541.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1962. Free electrons with thermal energy: their generation for chemical use. Nature, 195, No 4840, 488-489.
  • Hart, D’arcy P., Lovelock, J.E. and Nash, T. 1962. The lethal effect of cotton-wool lipid on tubercle bacilli in acid conditions and its prevention by surface-active agents. J. Hyg., Camb., 60, 509.
  • Lovelock, J.E., Simmonds, P.G. and Vandenheuvel, W.J.A. 1963. Affinity of steroids for electrons with thermal energies. Nature, 197, No. 4864, 249-251.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1964. Reactions in the gas phase between thermal energy electrons and compounds of biochemical interest. Physical Processes in Radiation Biology, ed. Augenstein, L., Mason, R. and Rosenberg, B. New York, Academic Press, 183-195.
  • Zlatkis, A. and Lovelock, J.E. 1965. Affinity of organic compounds for free electrons with thermal energies. Clinical Chemistry, 11, No.2, part II, 259-269.

Cryobiology

The discovery of the principal cause of damage to living cells during freezing and thawing and the mechanism of the protective action of neutral solutes are described in the papers below. The knowledge gathered was used to predict that dimethyl sulphoxide would be an excellent substance to protect living cells. The freezing of hamsters and their reanimation was splendid performing circus stuff.

  • Polge, C. and Lovelock, J.E. 1952. The preservation of bull semen at -79 C. Vet. Rec., 64, 396.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1952. Resuspension in plasma of human red blood cells frozen in glycerol. Lancet, 1238.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1953. The haemolysis of human red blood-cells by freezing and thawing. Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 10, 414.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1953. The mechanism of the protective action of glycerol against haemolysis by freezing and thawing. Biochem. Biophys. Acta ll, 28.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1954. The protective action of neutral solutes against haemolysis by freezing and thawing. Biochem. Journal, 56, No. 2, 265.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. and Polge, C. 1954. The immobilization of spermatozoa by freezing and thawing and the protective action of glycerol. Biochem. Journal, 58, 618.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1954. Biophysical aspects of the freezing and thawing of living cells. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 47, 60.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1954. Physical instability and thermal shock in red cells. Nature, 173, 659.
  • † Smith, A.U., Lovelock, J.E. and Parkes, A.S. 1954. Resuscitation of hamsters after supercooling or partial crystallization at body temperatures below 0 C. Nature, 173, 1136.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1954. Biophysical aspects of the freezing of living cells, in Preservation and Transplantation of Normal Tissue CIBA Foundation Symposium, ed. Wolstenholme, G.E.W. and Cameron, M. London, J. & A. Churchill Ltd.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1955. Haemolysis by thermal shock. Brit. J. Haematology, l, 117.
  • Andjus, R.K. and Lovelock, J.E. 1955. Reanimation of rats from body temperatures between 0 and 1 C by microwave diathermy. J. Physiol., 128, 541.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. and Smith, A.U. 1956. Studies on golden hamsters during cooling to and rewarming from body temperatures below 0 C. Proc. Roy. Soc., 145, 427.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1957. The denaturation of lipid-protein complexes as a cause of damage by freezing. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, B, 147, 427.
  • Austin, C.R. and Lovelock, J.E. 1958. Permeability of rabbit, rat and hamster egg membranes. Experimental Cell Research, 15, 260.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. and Bishop, M.W.H. 1959. Prevention of freezing damage to living cells by dimethyl sulphoxide. Nature, 183, 1394.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. and Smith, A.U. 1959. Heat transfer from and to animals in experimental hypothermia and freezing. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 80, 487.

Scientific instruments

The Ionisation Anemometer was the first of a series of inventions to use gaseous ionisation phenomena as a way of transducing a signal about the chemical or physical properties of a gas. It led to the development of the Electron Capture Detector, which was used to discover the global distribution of halocarbons, and helped to initiate the Environmental Movement. The Argon and Helium ionisation detectors were the first sensitive detectors for gas chromatography and helped to establish it as an analytical method. The photoionisation detector was another. The Palladium Transmodulator is a simple interface between a GC and a mass spectrometer. It made possible the GCMS experiment on the Viking spacecraft that landed on Mars, and was acknowledged by NASA.

A useful invention is a system that uses an electron capture detector and a chemical separator to isolate and measure perfluorocarbons in the environment down to parts per 1015by volume. By this means, tracer experiments involving continental sized air masses and large volumes of the oceans have become possible. Only three papers bear on this invention and they are marked by “‡”. The other significant papers on inventions are marked “† “.

  • Lovelock, J.E. 1945. Wax pencils for writing on cold wet glassware. Nature, 155, 581.
  • Lidwell, O.M. and Lovelock, J.E. 1946. Some methods of measuring ventilation. Journal of Hygiene, 44, 326.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. and Wasilewska, J. 1949. An ionisation anemometer. Sci. Instruments, 26, 367.
  • Welman, W.L. and Lovelock, J.E. 1955. An ionization anemometer with omnidirectional response. J. Inst. Heating and Ventilating Eng., 22, 421.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1957. Diathermy apparatus for the rapid rewarming of whole animals from 0 C and below. Proc. Roy. Soc., B 147, 545.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1958. A sensitive detector for gas chromatography. Journal of Chromatography, l, 35-46.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1958. Measurement of low vapor concentrations by collision with excited rare gas atoms. Nature, 181, 1460.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1958. A detector for use with capillary tube columns in gas chromatography. Nature, 182, 1663.
  • Lipsky, S.R., Landowne, R.A. and Lovelock, J.E. 1959. Separation of lipides by gas-liquid chromatography. Analytical Chemistry, 31, 852-856.
  • † Lovelock, J.E., James, A.T. and Piper, E.A. 1959. A new type of ionization detector for gas chromatography. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 72, 720.
  • † Zlatkis, A. and Lovelock, J.E. 1959. Gas chromatography of hydrocarbons using capillary columns and ionization detectors. Analytical Chemistry, 31, No. 4, 620-621.
  • Lipsky, S.R., Lovelock, J.E. and Landowne, R.A. 1959. The use of high efficiency capillary columns for the separation of certain cis-trans isomers of long chain fatty acid esters by gas chromatography. J.A.C.S., 81, 1010.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1960. Argon detectors. Gas Chromatography, ed. Scott, R.P.W., 16-29.
  • Lovelock, J.E. and Lipsky, S.R. 1960. Electron affinity spectroscopy-a new method for the identification of functional groups in chemical compounds separated by gas chromatography. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 82, 431-433.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1960. An ionization detector for permanent gases. Nature, 187, No 4731, 49-50.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1960. A photoionization detector for gases and vapors. Nature, 188, 401.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1961. Ionization methods for the analysis of gases and vapors. Analytical Chemistry, 33, No. 2, 162-178.
  • Lovelock, J.E. and Zlatkis, A. 1961. A new approach to lead alkyl analysis: gas phase electron absorption for selective detection. Analytical Chemistry, 33, No. 13, 1958-1959.
  • Lovelock, J.E. and Gregory, N.L. 1962. Electron capture ionization detectors. Gas Chromatography, ed. Brenner, N. Academic Press, 219.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1962. Free electrons with thermal energy: their generation for chemical use. Nature, 195, No. 4840, 488-489.
  • Simmonds, P.G. and Lovelock, J.E. 1963. Ionization cross-section detector as a reference standard in quantitative analysis by gas chromatography. Analytical Chemistry, 35, No. 10, 1345-1348.
  • Shoemake, G.R., Lovelock, J.E. and Zlatkis, A. 1963. The effect of temperature and carrier gas on the loss rate of tritium from radioactive foils. Journal of Chromatography, 12, 314-320.
  • Lovelock, J.E., Shoemake, G.R. and Zlatkis, A. 1963. Sensitive ionization cross-section detector for gas chromatography. Analytical Chemistry, 35, No. 4, 460-465.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1963. Electron absorption detectors and technique for use in quantitative and qualitative analysis by gas chromatography. Analytical Chemistry, 35, 474.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1964. Capture of low-energy electrons in chlorobenzene and bromobenzene. Nature, 203, No. 4951, 1267-1268.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1965. The (W) value detector for high concentrations of gases and vapors in air. Analytical Chemistry, 37, No. 4, 583-584.
  • † Wentworth, W.E., Chen, E. and Lovelock, J.E. 1966. The pulse-sampling technique for the study of electron-attachment phenomena. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 70, 445-458.
  • Lovelock, J.E., Fenimore, D.C. and Zlatkis, A. 1967. Electron attachment spectroscopy. Journal of Gas Chromatography, August 1967, 392-394.
  • Simmonds, P.G., Fenimore, D.C., Pettitt, B.C., Lovelock, J.E. and Zlatkis, A. 1967. Design of a Nickel-63 electron absorption detector and analytical significance of high temperature operation. Analytical Chemistry, 39, No. 12, 1428-1433.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1968. Analysis by gas phase electron absorption. In: Gas Chromatography 1968, Harbourn, C.L.A. Editor, 95-108.
  • † Lovelock, J.E., Charlton, K.W. and Simmonds, P.G. 1969. The Palladium Transmodulator: a new component for the gas chromatograph. Analytical Chemistry, 41, 1048-1052.
  • Warren, B.C.H. and Lovelock, J.E. 1969. The W-Value Detector. Determination of oxygen and anaesthetic vapours in expired air. Ciba Foundation Symposium on Gas Chromatography in Biology and Medicine, ed. Porter, R. 65-69.
  • Lovelock, J.E., Simmonds, P.G. and Shoemake, G.R. 1970. The palladium generator-separator-a combined electrolytic source and sink for hydrogen in closed circuit gas chromatography. Analytical Chemistry, 42, 969-973.
  • Lovelock, J.E., Simmonds, P.G., Shoemake, G.R. and Rich, S. 1970. Palladium devices for gas chromatography. Journal of Chromatographic Science, 8, 452-457.
  • Simmonds, P.G., Shoemake, G.R. and Lovelock, J.E. 1970. Palladium-Hydrogen System: Efficient interface for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry, 42, 881-885.
  • Lovelock, J.E., Simmonds, P.G. and Shoemake, G.R. 1971. Rare gases of the atmosphere: gas chromatography using a thermal conductivity detector and a palladium transmodulator. Analytical Chemistry, 43, 1958-1961.
  • † Lovelock, J.E., Maggs, R.J. and Adlard, E.R. 1971. Gas-phase coulometry by thermal electron attachment. Analytical Chemistry, 43, 1962-1965.
  • † Maggs, R.J., Joynes, P.L., Davies, A.J. and Lovelock, J.E. 1971. The electron capture detector – a new mode of operation. Analytical Chemistry, 43, 1966-1971.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1974. The Electron Capture Detector: theory and practice. Journal of Chromatography, 99, 3-12.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1975. Solute switching and detection by synchronous demodulation in gas chromatography. Journal of Chromatography, 112, 29-36.
  • ‡ Thomsen, E.L. and Lovelock, J.E. 1976. A continuous and immediate method for the detection of SF6 and other tracer gases by electron capture in atmospheric diffusion experiments. Atmospheric Environment, 10, 917-920.
  • ‡ Simmonds, P.G., Lovelock, A.J. and Lovelock, J.E. 1976. Continuous and ultrasensitive apparatus for the measurement of air-borne tracer substances. Journal of Chromatography, 126, 3-9.
  • Dwight, E.J., Lorch, E.A. and Lovelock, J.E. 1976. Iron-55 as an auger electron emitter: novel source for gas chromatography detectors. Journal of Chromatography, 116, 257-261.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. and Watson, A.J. 1978. Electron Capture Detector: theory and practice, II. Journal of Chromatography, 158, 123-138.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1981. The electron capture detector – a personal odyssey. CHEMTECH, September 1981, 531-537.
  • ‡ Lovelock, J.E. and Ferber, G.J. 1982. Exotic tracers for atmosphere studies. Atmospheric Environment, 16, No. 6, 1467-1471.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1982. Ultrasensitive chemical detectors. Applied Atomic Collision Physics, ed. Massey, H.S.W., McDaniel, E.W. and Bederson, B., 5, l-30.
  • Johnson, J.E. and Lovelock, J.E. 1988. Electron Capture Sulfur Detector: reduced sulfur species detection at the femtomole level. Analytical Chemistry, 60, 812-816.

Atmospheric chemistry

The papers with an “† ” are the more significant. They include several firsts: the discovery of the global distribution of CFCs and CC14, of Dimethyl Sulphide and CS2 as natural emissions, of methyl chloride and iodide. The first measurement of stratospheric CFCs and other halocarbons, the first estimate of the global average abundance of the .OH radical.

  • Lovelock, J.E. 1971. Air pollution and climatic change. Atmospheric Environment, 5, 403-41l.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1971. Atmospheric fluorine compounds as indicators of air movements. Nature, 230, No. 5293, 379 only.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1972. Atmospheric turbidity and CC13F concentrations in rural southern England and southern Ireland. Atmospheric Environment, 6, 917-925.
  • † Lovelock, J.E., Maggs, R.J. and Rasmussen, R.A. 1972. Atmospheric dimethyl sulphide and the natural sulphur cycle. Nature, 237, No. 5356, 452-453.
  • † Lovelock, J.E., Maggs, R.J. and Wade, R.J. 1973. Halogenated hydrocarbons in and over the Atlantic. Nature, 241, No. 5386, 194-196.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1974. Atmospheric halocarbons and stratospheric ozone. Nature, 252, No. 5481, 292-294.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1974. CS2 and the natural sulphur cycle. Nature, 248, No. 5449, 625-626.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. and Penkett, S.A. 1974. PAN over the Atlantic and the smell of clean linen. Nature, 249, No. 5456, 434.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1975. Natural halocarbons in the air and in the sea. Nature, 256, No. 5514, 193-194.
  • † Cox, R.A., Eggleton, A.E.J., Derwent, R.G., Lovelock, J.E. and Pack, A.H. 1975. Long-range transport of photochemical ozone in north-western Europe. Nature, 255, No. 5504, 118-121.
  • Cox, R.A., Derwent, R.G., Eggleton, A.E.J. and Lovelock, J.E. 1976. Photochemical oxidation of halocarbons in the troposphere. Atmospheric Environment, 10, 305-308.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1977. Halogenated hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, l, 399-406.
  • Pack, D.H., Lovelock, J.E., Cotton, G. and Curthoys, C. 1977. Halocarbon behaviour from a long time series. Atmospheric Environment, ll, 329-344.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1977. Methyl chloroform in the troposphere as an indicator of .OH radical abundance. Nature, 267, No. 5606, 32 only.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1977. PAN in the natural environment; its possible significance in the epidemiology of skin cancer. Ambio, 6, 131-133.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1982. Epilogue, in Stratospheric Ozone and Man, ed. Bower, F.A. and Ward, R.B. Florida, CRC Press, 195-201.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1982. The production and fate of reduced volatile species from oxic environments. Atmospheric Chemistry, ed. Goldberg, E.D., 199-213.
  • Rasmussen, R.A. and Lovelock, J.E. 1983. The atmospheric lifetime experiment 2. Calibration. Journal of Geophysical Research, 88, No. C13, 8369-837.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1984. Causes and effects of changes in stratospheric ozone: update 1983. Environment, 26, No. 10, 25-26.

Geophysiology

An invitation from NASA to think of new approaches to planetary life detection led me to a consider life as a global scale phenomenon. This view is touched on in the first paper of the list on the ‘Physical Basis for Life Detection’ and developed in the second ‘Atmospherical Compositional Analysis as a Life Detection Experiment’. Thinking about life this way led me directly to a view of the Earth as a large physiological system, the Gaia Hypothesis. The hypothesis developed slowly against fierce opposition mainly from biologists, who see it as counter Darwin. It is not, but instead is an extension of Darwin, a theory that sees the evolution of the environment and of the organisms, as a single process, with planetary self regulation as an emergent property. Objective evidence that will confirm or deny this view is now coming in. A major shift in biologists’ opposition was led in 1999 by W.D. Hamilton, who referred to Gaia Theory as Copernican.

  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1965. A physical basis for life detection experiments. Nature, 207, No. 4997, 568-570.
  • † Hitchcock. D.R. and Lovelock, J.E. 1967. Life detection by atmospheric analysis. Icarus, 7, 149-159.
  • Lovelock, J.E. and Hitchcock, D.R. 1967. Detecting planetary life from Earth. Science Journal, April 1967, 2-4.
  • Henderson, W., Eglinton, G., Simmonds, P.G. and Lovelock, J.E. 1968. Thermal alteration as a contributory process to the genesis of petroleum. Nature, 219, No. 5158, 1012-1016.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. and Giffin, C.E. 1968. Planetary atmospheres: compositional and other changes associated with the presence of life. American Astronautical Society, Advanced Space Experiments, 25, 179-193.
  • Lovelock, J.E. and Lodge, J.P. 1972. Oxygen in the contemporary atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment, 6, 575-578.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1972. Gaia as seen through the atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment, 6, 579-580.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. and Margulis, L. 1974. Atmospheric homeostasis by and for the biosphere: the Gaia Hypothesis. Tellus XXVI, l-10.
  • Margulis, L. and Lovelock, J.E. 1974. Biological Modulation of the Earth’s atmosphere. Icarus, 21, 471-489.
  • Lovelock, J.E. and Margulis, L. 1974. Homeostatic tendencies of the Earth’s atmosphere. Origins of Life, 5, 93-103.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1975. Thermodynamics and the recognition of alien biospheres. Proc. Roy. Soc. London B., 189, 167-181.
  • Margulis, L. and Lovelock, J.E. 1977. The view from Mars and Venus. The Sciences, March/April 1977, 10-13.
  • Margulis, L. and Lovelock, J.E. 1978. The biota as ancient and modern modulator of the Earth’s atmosphere. Pageoph., 116, 239-243.
  • Watson, A.J., Lovelock, J.E. and Margulis, L. 1978. Methanogenesis, fires and the regulation of atmospheric oxygen. Biosystems, 10, 293-298.
  • Watson, A.J., Lovelock, J.E. and Margulis, L. 1980. What controls atmospheric oxygen? BioSystems, 12, 123-125.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1982. From gas chromatography to Gaia. Chromatographia, 16, 26-31.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. and Watson, A.J. 1982. The regulation of carbon dioxide and climate: Gaia or geochemistry. Planet. Space Sci., 30, No. 8, 795-802.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. and Whitfield, M. 1982 The life span of the biosphere. Nature, 296, No. 5857, 561-563.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1983. Gaia as seen through the atmosphere. In: Biomineralization and Biological Metal Accumulation, ed. Westbroek, P. and de Jong, E.W., 15-25.
  • † Watson, A.J. and Lovelock, J.E. 1983. Biological homeostasis of the global environment: the parable of Daisyworld. Tellus, 35B, 284-289.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1983. Comment to Chapter 3: Atmospheric interactions-homogeneous gas reactions of C, N, and S containing compounds, in The Major Biogeochemical Cycles and Their Interations, ed. Bolin, B. and Cook, R.B. New York, SCOPE, 112-114.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1986. Gaia: the world as a living organism. New Scientist, 18 December 1986, 25-28.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1986. Geophysiology: a new look at Earth science. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society, 67, No. 4, 392-397.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1987. Ecopoiesis of Daisy World. Royal Society of Canada: Origin and Evolution of the Universe-Evidence for Design? ed. Robson, J.M., 153-166.
  • † Charlson, R.J., Lovelock, J.E., Andreae, M.O. and Warren, S.G. 1987. Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate. Nature, 326, No. 6114, 655-661.
  • Margulis, L. and Lovelock, J.E. 1989. Gaia and Geognosy, in Global Ecology: towards a science of the biosphere, ed. Rambler, M.B., Margulis, L. and Fester, R. San Diego, Academic Press Inc., l-29.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1989. Geophysiology, the science of Gaia. Reviews of Geophysics, 27, No. 2, 215-222.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1989. The First Leslie Cooper Memorial Lecture: Gaia. Journal of Marine Biology, 69, 746-758.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1989. Geophysiology. Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 80, 169-175.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1990. Hands up for the Gaia Hypothesis. Nature, 344, No. 6262, 100-102.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1991. Geophysiology of the oceans. Ocean Margin Processes in Global Change, ed. Mantoura, R.F.C., Martin, J.-M and Wollast, R. (Dahlem Konferenzen) John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 419-431.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1992. Geophysiological aspects of biodiversity. IUBS Monograph, 8, ed. Solbrig, O.T., Van Emden, H.M. and Van Oordt, P.G.W.J. Paris, International Union of Biological Sciences, 57-70.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1992. A numerical model for biodiversity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B, 338, 383-391.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. and Kump, L.R. 1994. Failure of climate regulation in a geophysiological model. Nature, 369, No 6483, 732-734.
  • † Harding, S.P. and Lovelock, J.E. 1996. Exploiter-mediated coexistence and frequency-dependent selection in a numerical model of biodiversity. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 182, 109-116.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1997. A geophysiologist’s thoughts on the natural sulphur cycle. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B, 352, 143-147.
  • † Lenton, T.M. and Lovelock, J.E. 2000. Daisyworld is Darwinian: constraints on adaptation are important for planetary self-regulation. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 206, 109-114.
  • † Lenton, T.M. and Lovelock, J.E. 2001. Daisyworld revisited: quantifying biological effects on planetary self-regulation. Tellus, 53B, 288-305.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2003. A response to Kirchner and Volk. Climatic Change, 57: 1-3.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 2003. The Living Earth. Nature, 426, 18/25 December, 769-770.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2004. Something nasty in the Greenhouse. Atmospheric Science Letterswww3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/jissue/109608606, October 20, 2004.

Philosophical papers, books and book reviews

  • Lovelock, J.E. and Epton, S. 1975. The quest for Gaia. New Scientist, 6 February, 304-309.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1976. Fresh Air, in Conservation of Resources. London, The Chemical Society, 195-203.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1979. The independent practice of science. New Scientist, 6 September, 714-717.
  • Allaby, M. and Lovelock, J.E. 1980. Wood stoves: the trendy pollutant. New Scientist, 13 November, 420-422.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1985. Are we destabilising world climate? : The Lessons of Geophysiology. The Ecologist, 15, 52-55.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1988. Stand up for Gaia. Resurgence.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1988. I speak for the Earth. Resurgence, 129, 18-20.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1988. Man and Gaia, in The Earth Report: monitoring the battle for our environment, ed. Goldsmith, E. and Hildyard, N. London, Mitchell Beazley, 51-64.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1989. Foreword in Earth Conference One, Vittachi, A. Boston, Shambala.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1989. The greening of science. Resurgence, 138, 12-19.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1989. Why the forests matter. The Financial Times, 17 June.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1990. Address to the Global Forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival. Poetry Review, 80, l, 4-6.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1992. The Earth is not fragile. In Monitoring the Evironment, The Linacre Lectures, 1990-91, ed. Sir Bryan Cartledge. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1993. The evolving Gaia Theory. The United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan. (a paper presented in September 1992 at the University)
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1992. For love of Earth. National Parks Service Courier, September, 5-6.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1992 Geophysiological aspects of biodiversity. Biodiversity and Global Change, International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) Monograph No, 8, ed. Solbrig, O.T., van Emden, H.M. and van Oordt, P.G.W.J.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1993. Gaia: science or myth? New Statesman & Society, January 29, 37-38.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1993. A planetary view of nuclear power. Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Yokohama, Japan, April.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1995. Human rights are not enough. Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona, January. Lecture only; not published but text available.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1995. Tales of a reluctant instrument maker. Selected Detectors, ed. Sievers, R.E. Chemical Analysis Series, 129. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1996. The Self-Regulating Earth. Osaka Prefecture University, September. Lecture only; not published but text available.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1996. Midwife to the Greens: the Electron Capture Detector. Volvo Environment Prize Lecture, Brussels, October.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1997. Our future as seen from Mars. Forum 2000 Prague, September. Lecture only; not published but text available.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1997. Travels with an Electron Capture Detector. Blue Planet Environment Prize, October.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1998. A Book for All Seasons. Science, Vol 280, pp 832-833.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2000. The Green Aspects of Nuclear Power. Green College, Oxford University, September. Lecture only; not published but text available.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2000. The fallible concept of Stewardship of the Earth. St George’s House, Windsor Castle, September. Lecture only; not published but text available.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2000. Lecture for Hiroshima, November. Lecture only; not published but text available.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2001. At the service of the Earth. Resurgence No 206, pp 7-9.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2001. A Way of Life for Agnostics? Skeptical Inquirer Vol 25, No 5, pp 40-42.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2001. We need nuclear power … Daily Telegraph, London, 15 August, 14; also German Financial Times.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2001. The Evolution of Gaia Theory. NERC News, Winter, 8-9.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2002. What is Gaia? Resurgence No 211, 6-8.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2002. Gaia after Johannesburg. St Edmund’s College, Cambridge University, October. Lecture only; not published but text available.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2003. Gaia Theory. Encarta (Microsoft).
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2003. Gaia Theory. UK Channel 4 Television website, January.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2003. Nuclear Energy – a safe alternative to fossil fuel. At founding of the World Nuclear University, London, 4 September. Lecture only; not published but text available.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2004. Macro-engineering and global change. Tyndall Centre & Cambridge University-MIT Institute Symposium, January. Lecture only; not published but text available.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2004. Global Change and the Green Movement. Adam Smith Insitute, March. Lecture only; not published but text available.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2004. Nuclear Power is the only Green solution. The Independent, 24 May.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2004. Selfish Greens. Prospect June, 12-13.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2004. Letter in Mainichi Shimbun newspaper, Japan, August.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2004. Time for a Rethink? Yes. The Independent, 28 August.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2004. Medicine for an ailing planet. Trade Union, Prospect, 11 November. Lecture only; not published but text available.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2004. Medicine for a Fevered Earth. Royal Society of Arts and Forum for the Future, 2 December. Lecture only; not published but text available.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2004. Reflections on Gaia. American Geophysical Union Chapman Conference, Valencia. Scientists Debate Gaia, MIT Press, 2004, 1-5. (Lecture given 2000)
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2005. At War with the Earth. Resurgence, 228, Jan/Feb, 6-7.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2005. Foreword for The Essential Mary Midgley by Mary Midgley, Routledge.

Books on Gaia Theory

  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1988. The Ages of Gaia. New York, W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 1979. Gaia: a new look at life on Earth. Oxford University Press.
  • † Lovelock, J.E.1991. The practical science of planetary medicine. London, Gaia Books Ltd.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 2000 Homage to Gaia: the Life of an Independent Scientist. Oxford University Press.
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 2006 Medicine for an Ailing Planet. (formerly The Practical Science, as above (Hamlyn).
  • † Lovelock, J.E. 2006 The Revenge of Gaia.

Light reading

  • Allaby, M. and Lovelock, J.E. 1983. The Great Extinction. London, Secker & Warburg.
  • Allaby, M. and Lovelock, J.E. 1984. The Greening of Mars. London, Andre Deutsch.

Biographical memoir

  • Lovelock, J.E. 2004. Archer John Porter Martin CBE. Biographical Memoirs Fellows of the Royal Society, London. 50, 157-170.

Book Reviews

  • Lovelock, J.E. 1984. An expedition to the days when it began. (review of Earth’s Earliest Biosphere: Its Origin and Evolution ed. Schopf, J.W.) in New Scientist, 12 April.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1984. Review of The Chemical Evolution of the Atmosphere and Oceans by H.D. Holland, in Nature, 1984.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1990. A danger to science? (review of The Rebirth of Nature by Rupert Sheldrake) in Nature, 348, 685.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1990. Small is wonderful. (review of Engines of Creation by K. Eric Drexler) in New Scientist, 1 September.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1992. Bringing it all back home (review of Science Probe! the Amateur Scientist’s Journal) in Nature, 359, 436.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1994. Elegant, pitiless, beautiful, (review of A Journey to the Ants by Bert Holldobler and Edward O. Wilson) in Times Higher Education Supplement, 4 November.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1995. Models assembled from spare parts (review of Vital Dust: Life as a cosmic imperative by Christian de Duve) in Times Higher Education Supplement, 3 November.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 1997. Floral delight (review of Flora Britannica: The Definitive New Guide to Wild Flowers, Plants and Trees by Richard Mabey) in Resurgence, No. 185.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2001. Science that moves in a religious way (review of The Quest for Mars: The NASA Scientists and their Search for Life beyond Earth by Laurence Bergreen) in The Times Higher Education Supplement, 2 February.
  • Lovelock, J.E. 2006 An Inconvenient Truth (review of Al Gore’s book and film) in The Times Higher Education Supplement, September.